Meet The Underdog Supercomputer: Shoebox-Sized Data Center With Unrivaled Power

Imec Unveils Revolutionary Superconducting Processor to Revolutionize Computing


In the face of escalating computational demands and the concomitant strain on global energy resources, research institute imec has proposed a groundbreaking solution: a radical departure from traditional computing methods. The proposed solution leverages the fundamental properties of superconductors to significantly reduce energy consumption, paving the way for an innovative superconducting processor.


The development of superconducting processors has been ongoing for several years. By employing standard CMOS fabrication techniques, these processors have the potential to deliver computing power that is a hundred times more energy-efficient than current state-of-the-art chips. This transformative technology empowers the prospect of a computer that can condense data-center-scale computing resources into a compact system the size of a shoebox.

Imec’s Breakthrough

Imec’s research has culminated in the design of a novel processor from the ground up, a collaborative effort between CMOS engineers and full-stack development teams. Notably, imec transitioned from niobium to the related compound niobium titanium nitride as the superconducting material. This shift enabled the processor to withstand the temperatures involved in CMOS fabrication without compromising its superconducting capabilities.

The resulting superconducting chip, optimized for AI processors, bears a resemblance to a typical 3D CMOS system-on-chip. Notably, a large portion of the chip must be immersed in liquid helium to maintain the optimal operating temperature near 4 Kelvin.

Advantages of Superconducting Processors

In comparison to conventional CMOS chips, superconductors dissipate a fraction of the energy in heat form. This characteristic facilitates the possibility of stacking computational chips directly atop one another, reducing the physical footprint while preserving the density gains brought about by Moore’s Law.

Imec estimates that a stack of 100 superconducting boards, each equipped with superconductor processing units (SPUs), superconducting SRAM, and DRAM memory stacks, can be housed in a shoebox-sized cooling environment measuring 20 x 20 x 12 centimeters. This configuration has the potential to perform a staggering 20 exaflops in BF16 number format. This capability surpasses the most powerful supercomputer in operation today, Frontier at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Tennessee, by a factor of 20, while consuming a mere 500 kilowatts of power. The energy efficiency of this system is also 100 times greater.

Applications and Implications

Imec’s innovation is not intended to replace existing CMOS computing technologies but rather to act as a complementary solution. Researchers believe that the technology will significantly boost AI and machine learning capabilities, and it is poised for seamless integration with quantum computers.

The reduced data center footprint enabled by superconducting digital technology will allow these systems to be deployed closer to their intended applications, ultimately driving advancements in industries such as agriculture, healthcare, and energy.


Imec’s groundbreaking research represents a significant step towards revolutionizing computing. By harnessing the power of superconductors, the development of energy-efficient superconducting processors opens up exciting possibilities for advancing AI, data processing, and scientific computing. This technology has the potential to transform industries and fuel the next wave of innovation across multiple sectors.